REGIONAL AND BUSINESS STUDIES <p>ISSN 2732-2726 (Online)<br />ISSN 2061-2311 (Print until 2020)<br />Regional and Business Studies is an international, transdisciplinary scientific journal published recently twice a year and contains original scientific reports, research results, critical résumés, conference reviews, and letters to the editors. The topic of the journal includes the important fields of business, rural and regional development, and social sciences.<br />Founded: 2009 at Kaposvár University Faculty of Economic Science.</p> en-US (Kinga Szabó, PhD) (Zoltán Diszterhöft) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 An Overview of Performance Measurement for Demand Forecasting Based on Artificial Neural Networks <p>Demand forecasting is an essential task to match supply and demand. From a supplier’s view, demand forecasting is important to optimize supply chains and thus maximize profits. The ever-increasing availability of data that can be used as input factors for predictive models allows more and more sophistication for diverse forecasting tasks in the context of demand forecasting. On the one hand, increasingly complex models have been used for demand forecasting over the last years, from simple exponential smoothing methods and ARIMA models up to complex, hybrid (deep) artificial neural networks. On the other hand, little attention is paid to the methods that evaluate the forecasting performance of these models, which are essential for the selection from among potential forecasting models. In this article, we aim to answer the question of what are the most favourable measurements in recent literature on applied neural network demand forecasting for supply chain management. To this end, we analyzed 193 relevant publications in which demand forecasting was applied using artificial neural networks. We found that in artificial neural network demand forecasting used to evaluate forecasting performance, Mean Absolute Percentage Error, Root Mean Squared Error, Mean Squared Error and Mean Absolute Error are by far the most popular methods. Furthermore, we found that when forecasting performance measurements are combined, the most common combination is the combination of Mean Absolute Error, the Root Mean Squared Error and the Mean Absolute Error.</p> Steffen Robus, Virág Walter, Zsolt Kőmüves Copyright (c) 2022 Steffen Robus, Virág Walter, Zsolt Kőmüves Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Agroecological Vocational Training Approach Through the Eyes of Farmers <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Agroecology (AE) as a broad collection of good farming management practices, recognizes the impacts of agriculture on ecosystems and society. Even though AE does not have a specific certification method, its basic components can be identified at the farm level too. In the context of the trAEce project, research was conducted in order to investigate the concept of AE at the farm level. Furthermore, the topics that can be taught in the form of vocational training designed for farmers in connection with AE have also been identified. Accordingly, a 6-module training with 7 events was organized with the aim of testing the developed AE vocational training curriculum. The main target group of the training was conventional farmers who are committed to changing their farming methods and are open to agroecological solutions. The participants had opportunities to express their opinion about the training after each module day, and after completing the whole course. The analysis of the feedback questionnaires proved that the practice-oriented vocational training course that promotes well-established good practices combined with basic theoretical knowledge is considered an effective method to increase farmers’ knowledge about AE. The training helps conventional farmers in the transition towards AE contributing to the even more efficient use of EU subsidies.</span></p> Diána Koponicsné Györke, Apolka Ujj Copyright (c) 2022 Diána Koponicsné Györke, Apolka Ujj Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey About Patents, Invention and Commercialization Processes in Kazakhstan <p>This article is about the importance of intellectual property in the innovation process. It focuses on the results obtained in the survey with owners of patents in Kazakhstan. The questions were related to the processes of invention and commercialization. From the mainstream of responses, we identified those that are crucial in the process of invention and those that can affect the process of commercialization in the future. Namely, we were interested in the variables which are significant in the process of invention and how they affect commercialization. The result of the post-hoc test identified the data which differ within groups. It was found that eight variables were different in the combination of groups: the number of authors, the type of resource R&amp;D, the number of patents, and the evaluation of the invention, expressed in terms of money. This test revealed that these variables change from group to group. Moreover, it allowed us to look deeper into the inventive process and identify the direction of these changes.</p> Ainura Shakenova Copyright (c) 2022 Ainura Shakenova Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Coopetition in the Context of the Sustainability Goals <p>The article explores the literature on coopetition in relation to sustainability goals. The research is based on three parts, which specifically address the terms „coopetition” and „sustainability”, respectively, and then examine the literature that specifically focuses on the topic of „coopetition and sustainability”. In particular, the research provides the following answers: How is the novel type of mergers between competitors known as „coopetition” interpreted in academia? What is meant by sustainability? What are its origins and the driving forces that can influence cooperation with competitors? It is noted that competitive cooperations between competitors exist in many fields of entrepreneurship and cannot be attributed to one single industry. In the past, the main drivers for entrepreneurs to enter a coopetition were economic aspects. Among others, the reduction of costs, the increase or optimisation of economic performance and thus the strengthening of competitiveness vis-à- vis other competitors, as well as the opening up of new markets and the reduction of business risk. Since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda, however, sustainability considerations have become another driver for entering a coopetition, if not one of the main future drivers. This is because not only political requirements but also the purchasing behaviour of consumers have led to rethinking in the corporate sector.</p> Doreen Kaempf Copyright (c) 2022 Doreen Kaempf Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000