COLUMELLA – Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences <div id="maincontent-right"> <p>ISSN 2064-9479 (Online)<br />ISSN 2064-7816 (Print)<br />Columella – Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences is an international bi-annual journal that publishes original research articles and review papers in all aspects of agriculture and associated environmental sciences.<br />Founded: 2014 at Szent István University, Gödöllő</p> </div> Szent István Campus of Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences en-US COLUMELLA – Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 2064-7816 SPAD values, as well as sugar- and capsaicin content in different varieties of outdoor peppers <p>The marketability of the sweet peppers is determined by their quality in Class I, which must also meet the highest standards in terms of the color, shape of the variety and the characteristics of the various flavors. However, the determinants of quality may vary from one pepper type to another. During of our research, we examined the utilization of nitrogen, magnesium and potassium in different types of domestic peppers in the context of the relative chlorophyll content of the foliage and the amount of sugar and total capsaicin in the fruits. We determined that the nutrient solution prepared by Duna-r Ltd. is suitable for achieving the highest sugar and capsaicin content, but their levels can differ significantly. The uptake and utilization of nitrogen, magnesium and potassium of nutrient solution can be checked with the SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) index data of the foliage. We found that there are periods in the phenophase of the pepper cultivars studied when both sugar content and capsaicin content increase significantly. Another major result is that sugar content is a basic determinant of capsaicin content in hot peppers and cherry peppers, while it is not an important factor of capsaicin content for Bogyiszló-type peppers.</p> Ferenc Lantos László Makra Kati Mike Ingrid Gyalai Copyright (c) 2022 Ferenc Lantos, László Makra, Kati Mike, Ingrid Gyalai 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 9 1 5 15 10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2022.9.1.5 Assessment of measured and estimated meteorological data in terms of sorghum production on the example of Hamelmalo, Eritrea <p>Eritrea is exposed to climate variability and extreme events like drought and precipitation variability. Hamelmalo, a sub region in Eritrea, suffers from all the problems brought by climate change, especially because local people mainly depend on rainfed agriculture. I it is difficult to conduct climate related research activities for the region due to the shortage of meteorological data. However, in 2015, a new, complete meteorological station was established providing the chance of the first observations for practical and scientific purposes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate some climatic parameters from crop productional point of view by comparing the observed values with ones calculated by the Local Climate Estimator (LCE) model. Chi-square test was used to statistically analyse the differences. Based on the results, all the studied climatic parameters, except for precipitation, were almost on a par, which means there were no statistically significant differences between the observed and the estimated values. It can be concluded that the most variable climatic parameter in Hamelmalo is precipitation and this also affects the climatic water balance hence the need for irrigation if higher yields are wanted to be achieved. Sufficient water is vital in the mid-season and the late developmental stage of sorghum. Therefore, sowing time is advised to be adjusted to early July to ensure the maximum vegetative growth and seed setting period to be reached at the end of August in order to take the advantage of the positive climatic water balance of these two months.</p> Mehari Gebreyesus Györgyi Kovács Géza Tuba Arzu Rivera-Garcia József Zsembeli Copyright (c) 2022 József Zsembeli, Mehari GEBREYESUS, Györgyi Kovács, Géza Tuba, Arzu Rivera-Garcia 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 9 1 17 30 10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2022.9.1.17 In silico promoter analysis and expression of the BIG BROTHER gene in different organs of potato <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The ubiquitin E3 ligase <em>BIG BROTHER/ENHANCER OF DA1 (BB)</em> gene encoding a RING finger protein was identified as a central growth regulator in <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em>. It was found that <em>BB</em> restricts cell proliferation and promotes leaf senescence. Besides of <em>Arabidopsis</em>, however, the role and regulation of <em>BB</em> in other plant species is only sparsely known. Supposing that the <em>BB</em> gene, like in <em>Arabidopsis</em>, has an important role in the development of potato we aimed to analyse a 3.0-kb promoter sequence of the potato <em>BB</em> gene, <em>StBB</em>, <em>in silico</em> and study the level of <em>StBB</em> expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in different organs. A total of 48 binding sites for 15 transcription factor (TF) families were predicted. Most of them were located in the -1.5-kb promoter region. The dominating family of TFs was DOF. It was found that 20 out of the 24 TFs with known functions are involved in developmental processes such as for example, the flower-, leaf-, stem- and root development or cell cycle regulation. In line with this finding, the <em>StBB</em> mRNA was detected in each organ tested with the largest amounts in petal and stamen. These results suggest a similar function of <em>StBB</em> in potato than that is of <em>BB</em> in <em>Arabidopsis</em>, i.e., restriction of organ overgrowth during development and limitation of the plant growth.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Khongorzul Odgerel Zsófia Bánfalvi Copyright (c) 2022 Khongorzul Odgerel, Zsófia Bánfalvi 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 9 1 31 41 10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2022.9.1.31 Effect of Different Irrigation Regimes on the Early Development of Pot-Grown Black Locust Saplings <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Black locust currently is considered to be the most important tree species of short-rotation forests in Hungary with the purpose of either woody biomass or industrial wood. Despite the general supposition on the drought tolerance of the species, water availability seems to be a more limiting factor to exploit the growing potential of highly productive new varieties than nutrient amendments. Preliminary measurements of the current study were made on the connection between the depth of the water-retaining soil layer and the growth of saplings on black locust plantations. A significant negative correlation was found between the depth of the water-retaining layer, the stem diameter and the height of the saplings. To investigate the phenomenon, a model experiment was launched with loamy sand soil in the pots. During six weeks, pots were watered every morning up to the weight referring to the 30, 40, 60 and 80% of field capacity (FC). Our results showed that 30% FC was only sufficient for the survival of the saplings, growth was only noticeable at plants with 40% FC or more. During the first 4 weeks, differences in growth and cumulative evapotranspiration between the 60% and 80% FC treatment were not considerable. However, in the last two weeks, saplings with the highest FC produced substantially higher biomass, resulting in a one-third higher final weight than those of FC 60%. Even with the limited soil capacity of the pots, water use of these saplings of 1 m height and 1 cm stem diameter exceeded 1.5 L per day. Our results confirmed that black locust is a water-intensive species with a high water use potential, which emphasizes the importance of irrigation on nurseries and the first years of plantations.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Attila Ombódi Andrea Csorbainé Gógán Kálmán Pogrányi Katalin Posta Copyright (c) 2022 Attila Ombódi, Andrea Csorbainé Gógán, Kálmán Pogrányi, Katalin Posta 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 9 1 43 55 10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2022.9.1.43 GIS in the service of plant breeding in Karcag <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Plant varieties bred by the Hungarian Breeding Institutes in different agro-ecological conditions can bear the unfavourable factors of the regions with greater tolerance, so they provide advantages and yield stability for the farmers who choose from these varieties. Farmers can contribute to the genetic potential of the planted seeds with the applied cultivation technology. The stable genetical background (the high quality pre- basic, basic and certified seeds) is provided by plant breeding to the farmers. Breeding is a long and tiring task: the classical breeding process, which usually takes 8–10 years, starts with selecting variety assignments and its growing. Finally new, stable varieties are produced which can provide balanced, high yield and also have good or significant qualitative features among extreme conditions. They can bear the unfavourable conditions of the region with greater tolerance, so provide significant yield stability for the farmers. Space technology supported IT solutions (remote sensing, precision farming and soil-friendly agro-technics) has been introduced into plant breeding methods in Karcag, which greatly support the aims of breeding. The main goal is to provide harmonical growing of the nursery, the large punctuality and to decrease the number and cost of agricultural operations. In this study, the new methods and technologies applied in plant breeding in Karcag are introduced.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Róbert Czimbalmos Mónika Éva Fazekas Eszter Murányi Attila Nagy Attila Harangi Copyright (c) 2022 Róbert Czimbalmos , Mónika Éva Fazekas, Eszter Murányi, Attila Nagy, Attila Harangi 2022-07-08 2022-07-08 9 1 57 64 10.18380/SZIE.COLUM.2022.9.1.57