Recent trends in fish feed ingredients – mini review
Fish farming is commonly described as being extensive, semi-intensive or intensive. The continuous growing of aquaculture sector (around 8 % per year) led systems to be more and more intensive. In intensive farming, the fish are kept at high stocking density, that’s why the fish are dependent on the feed provided. Last decades aquaculture became more and more effective, but it has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social judgement. Increasing fishmeal (FM) cost, irregular supply, decreasing availability, and poor quality of FM have put forward highlighting on its partial or complete substitution with other alternative protein sources. The fish feed industry has to be very responsible about to use FM alternatives. Scientists have to share on this burden to achieve sustainable, cost-effective aims. Indicators of sustainability in aquaculture could be energy efficiency, use of water, nutrient utilisation efficiency and production costs. The climate change is also affecting the sector, such as the predicted changes in ocean circulation pattern might also have a negative influence on the reliability of small pelagic stocks that being utilized for FM production or the appearance of mycotoxins on terrestrial plants, what could be possible alternative ingredients. The increase of the amount of non-marine ingredients in feeds is the result of years of investment and research in feed formulation to provide the nutrients the fish need to growth and remain healthy. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in reducing levels of FM in commercial feeds for farmed fish. Common obstacles associated with consumption of plant-based protein diets, because many times we face the facts with amino acid imbalances and deficiencies, high levels of indigestible carbohydrates present in certain grain products, and varying antinutritive factors (ANFs) that negatively affect fish growth and health. In this study the recent trends in alternative fish feed ingredients had been reviewed shortly. In conclusion, complete replacement of fishmeal in fish feeds is more difficult and will require further research efforts to achieve the expected goals, but there are many auspicious alternatives.